Oral fibroma is a type of tumour which is benign and develop in the mouth and can affect people of all ages. By this article, we will discuss the causes, symptoms, prevention and treatment options for oral fibroma.
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What is Oral Fibroma?
Oral Fibroma is a type of non-malignant mouth sore which consists of smooth scar tissues. It’s other names are oral polyp, traumatic Fibroma, fibrous nodule, and focal intraoral fibrous hyperplasia. Although, oral Fibroma affects about 1-2% of adults, it can occur at all ages of development.
Oral Fibroma is usually a sole lesion, smooth, raised, and firm to touch. They grow in response to localized irritation and are rarely cancerous. It’s less than 1 cm in diameter. This oral condition does not have a color different from the normal pink color of your mouth, except in the case of bleeding caused by excessive irritation. It affects the inner parts of the cheek, tongues, and lips, and can be discovered through dental examination.
Oral Fibroma are round or oval and can grow bigger with increased irritation, but may appear flat when found underneath a denture. The surfaces of Oral Fibroma are usually rough and scaly. Although its texture and appearance looks like cancer cells, oral Fibroma does not cause oral cancer or develop into cancerous cells.
Types of Oral Fibroma
This is an overgrowth of fibrous tissues caused by severe irritation of the denture flange against the point where the gums and inner cheeks meet. Due to bone loss, bony support for dentures base is unstable, leading to ill-fitting dentures. It’s mostly found in elderly ones.
Giant cell fibroma
The Giant cell fibroma is not caused by irritation. It can occur at any age, and it’s mostly found on the tongue or palate.
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There are several different types of oral fibroma, including:
- Traumatic fibroma
- Irritation fibroma
- Congenital fibroma
Causes of Oral Fibroma
The exact cause of oral fibroma is unknown. But as per the some studies, this can caused by the chronic irritation and trauma to soft tissue. The spots they are usually seen are sides of your tongue, lips, gums, and inside your cheeks. These are the factors that can increase the risk of oral fibroma.
- Biting the cheek or lips
- Wearing ill-fitting dental appliances: For eg. Dentures, braces
- Chewing tobacco
- Poor oral hygiene
Symptoms of Oral Fibroma
The symptoms of Oral Fibroma include but are not limited to
- Presence of uncommon lumps in your mouth which grows slowly overtime.
- Presence of coarse or uneven surfaces inside your cheeks or on the gums
- A change in the color of your cheek and gum tissues ranging from pale to dark coloration
- Small, pinkish, firm, and painless bumps or lumps on the inside of the cheeks, lips, tongue, or gums.
- Difficulty speaking and eating if the location of fibroma interferes with oral function.
Diagnosis of Oral Fibroma
To diagnose any oral lesion, immediately book your appointment with you dentist, oral surgeon or medical doctor. They will perform the thorough intraoral examination to check if the bump/ lesion is oral fibroma or some other lesion.
Treatment of Oral Fibroma
The treatment for oral fibroma depends on the severity of the condition. In most cases, oral fibroma does not require treatment and may resolve on its own over time. Depending on the severity of oral Fibroma, the treatment procedures are easy and efficient . Start by identifying the source of the irritation. If the source of the irritation is not identified and removed, there might be a reoccurrence after treatment.
- If oral Fibroma is caused due to a habit such as excessive biting of the insides of your cheeks or lips, you should consciously restrain yourself from the habit after treatment to avoid a recurrence.
- If it’s due to ill-fitting dental appliances or dentures, adjust and fit dentures properly and visit your dentist for treatment.
Oral Fibroma is best treated via dental surgery. Here they are
In Laser removal your dentist uses an anesthetic to numb the fibrous area and remove the oral fibroma. This method is highly efficient and reduces your pain. The fibroma area is continuously swept with the laser until the Fibroma is completely removed. The laser cauterizes and seals the incision as the Fibroma is removed. Therefore, there is no need for suturing after the surgery.
Laser removal takes about fifteen minutes, and it’s without pain and bleeding. However, the effect of the anesthetic may not wear off immediately. And the best part is that you don’t have to restrict your activities or take special care while recovering.
Use of Scalpel
This surgery is performed using a scalpel-cutting instrument. The fibrous area is numbed before cutting with the scalpel. Unlike the laser, this procedure requires suturing. The number of sutures depends on the size of the Fibroma.
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Special care must be taken during recovery to avoid infection of the wound. If you notice a swelling, discharge, or excessive pain after the surgery, visit your dentist immediately, it might be a sign of an infection. You should also avoid extremely spicy or hot foods, and this can lead to an irritation of the incision. Post-surgery pains should be mild and can be managed using pain relief medications according to your doctor’s prescription.
Prevention of Oral Fibroma
The following are some tips to help prevent the development of oral fibroma:
- Practice good oral hygiene, including regular brushing and flossing.
- Avoid biting the inside of the cheeks or lips.
- Make sure that dental appliances, such as dentures or braces, fit properly.
- Avoid using tobacco products.
Note: There are systemic diseases associated with multiple small fibromas. A differential diagnosis differentiates it from oral fibrous.
Take a look:
- Neurofibroma: It’s a slow-growing mass on the tongue, Buccal mucosa, and other locations.
- Neurilemmoma: It’s a painful oral condition on the tongue
- Lipoma: Lipoma has a yellow coloration because of the presence of lipid.
- Fibrosarcomas: Fibrosarcomas is a rare oral condition, but gradually enlarges if not properly taken care of.
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