What is Menstruation? Symptoms, Terms, Bloodclot & Hygiene Instructions?

Menstruation or in common period refers to periodic bleeding through the vagina in females. It is a biological process which happens due to hormone-based shedding of the lining of the uterus. “It is a sign of a girl turning to a woman”.


In the 21st century, there are a number of myths associated with menstruation. Some are

  • Women are impure during periods.
  • Women should not cook food.
  • She should not enter the religious place.
  • She should stay in isolation.
  • She should not enter the working places and educational institutes.

Menstrual pain in females

There are many more which have greatly reduced females in education and professional areas. As a result of it, the nation’s growth greatly impairs. To remove the myths about the periods, one should understand a natural process. This article is all about explaining you the menstrual cycle as a normal process.
DO YOU KNOW- Normal amount of blood loss per period is about 50-100 ml.

Terms One should Know

  • Normal period–  21 to 35 days
  • Menarche– The beginning of periods. It happens in 12-15 years of age.
  • Menopause– The end of periods. It happens in 45-55 years of age.
  • Oligomenorrhea/ Light periods- When periods come after more than 35 days of last period.
  • Polymennorhoea/ Heavy periods– When periods come before 20 days of last period.
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What is Normal, Abnormal/ Pathological

Menstrual symptoms

Pre-menstrual syndrome (PMS)


It is a psychiatric symptom. It includes

  • Anxiety
  • Mood swings
  • Depression
  • Irritation
  • Food cravings
  • Migraine
  • Body aches

Pms symptoms

It starts one week prior to periods and resolves gradually with blood flow over the first and second day. It happens in almost 70% of females.

Abnormal- If these symptoms are too much that they impair your personal and professional life, then you need to consult your doctor, more specifically, a psychiatrist. It is not worrisome. Once you get counseled and treated, you become absolutely normal.

Painful bleeding


A decent amount of pain is expected to happen to 95% of females during periods and it is absolutely normal. In fact, painless cycles are the problem worthy as mostly painless cycles do not produce eggs (related to infertility).
This pain is said to be normal when it occurs 2-3 days prior to periods and resolve gradually in 1-2 days bleeding.

Abnormal– If pain occurs 7 days prior to periods till the last day of your bleeding plus not relieved by basic pain killers.
The reason for painful bleeding (dysmenorrhea) is

  • Fibroids– It is a muscular tumor of the uterus and the most common pelvic tumor of females of reproductive age. One should see a gynecologist for proper treatment.
  • Adenomyosis– A gross enlargement of the uterus leading to the painful periods. Treatment is medically followed by surgical.
  • Hormone-related
  • Some chemical changes in the body- Most common is prostaglandin.
  • Carcinoma-related

Blood clots in periods

Large Blood clot in periods

Blood clots are normally seen in periods. Menstrual blood is a combination of blood, mucus, and tissue lining of the uterus. So, it is normal to see blood clots.

Abnormal– When blood clots are very large in size or number or continue to the whole of your period. In this condition, seek advice from your gynecologist. This can be suppressed by birth-control methods.
CAUTION- Do not go for any treatment by yourself without consulting your doctor.

Absent Periods

This is known as Amenorrhoea. It can be of two types-

  • PrimaryAmenorrhoeaa
  • Secondary Amenorrhoea

Primary Amennorhoea

When a girl of 13 years without her sexual development (like breast, armpit hair) do not menstruate.
Or, when a girl of 16 years with other sexual development do not menstruate.


  • Genetic
  • Stress-induced
  • Athletes
  • Malnourishment/ No proper food and diet
  • Anorexia nervosa– A condition especially seen in a female child in which due to fear of getting fat, she does not eat well.

Secondary Amenorrhoea

When a normal menstruating female stops menstruating. The most common cause is pregnancy. The most common pathological cause is polycystic ovarian syndrome/ disease (PCOD/PCOS). PCOS is a condition in which ovary forms a number of cysts in itself and cannot release the egg.

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How to make Teenagers Feel Comfortable

teenager asking doubt on mensus

  • Talk about it to your daughter, your sister or other younger girls in your family.
  • Describe in a positive way.
  • Give her a demonstration of usage of a sanitary napkin.
  • Show your care to her every time she bleeds.
  • Help her manage it in personal and professional areas.
  • Give her a positive environment so that she can ask anything and everything that confuses her.
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Menstrual Hygiene

Menstrual Hygeine

It is really important to understand to understand that menstrual hygiene is mandatory to avoid a number of health problems associated with it. Few tips are

  • Change your pads every six hourly.
  • Throw your used napkins in a dustbin in a wrapped manner.
  • Do not flush the pads in the pot.
  • Always wash your vagina in your periods whenever you use the toilet.
  • Change your undergarments every time you change your pad and wash them properly and let them dry under the sun before next use.
  • Never use soaps to wash your intimate areas.
  • Always consult your doctor whenever you find any odour or release through your vagina.

Dr Deepak Kansal is a dentist, who is currently working in Sri Ganganagar. He did his Bachelor of Dental Surgery from Rajasthan University of Health Science.

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